REGION IV ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE
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COMMUNITY CASE STUDIES
Four communities with Superfund sites were selected for case studies and environmental justice community workshops. The four communities included Anniston, Alabama, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Charleston, South Carolina, and Brunswick, Georgia. The case study analysis includes demographic profiles of the populations surrounding superfund sites and other polluting facilities in or near the impacted communities.
Profiles of the city, county, and state were also presented. These date were derived from 1990 census data. Landview II was used to develop demographic profiles of the population living within the counties in which the sites are located. These data are provided only to illustrate the geographic location of the minority and low-income population and polluting facilities, and the potential for multiple impacts. The preliminary GIS analysis presented in this chapter does not address proximity, volume, toxicity, or health effects from toxic releases.
Other data for the case studies were derived from windshield surveys and informal interviews conducted during visits to the sites and communities. EPA personnel were interviewed to obtain information on communication mechanisms employed to reach communities near the sites and methods used to involve these populations in the superfund process. Interviews were also conducted with government personnel to assess the recruitment methods, process of filling vacancies, structure, composition and operations of the Restoration Advisory Boards, Local Redevelopment Agencies and Community Advisory Groups (CAGs), to aid in the formulation of recommendations to encourage racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity on these planning bodies, and to promote the involvement of minorities and low-income communities in the Superfund process after these planning bodies are formed.
Interviews were conducted with community leaders to document the mechanisms used to reach the impacted racial and cultural groups and low-income population and to ascertain whether barriers exist that impede participation in the process. Stakeholder rosters were compiled on each case study community. The stakeholder rosters included ethnic and cultural-based environmental justice networks and voluntary associations, churches, ministerial alliances, civil rights groups, ethnic-based chambers of commerce and business associations, neighborhood associations, home owners groups, civic clubs, elected officials who represent minority communities, and ethnic-based professional, medical, scientific, and legal associations. The stakeholder rosters were used as the basis for the mailing lists and contact sheets for workshops, townhall meetings, and general community outreach and communication.
Case Study #1: Anniston, Alabama
Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) was officially designated as the Anniston Ordnance Depot in October 1941 when the first ammunition storage facilities were completed. During World War II the depot began storing combat equipment, and over the years ANAD began repairing vehicles, modifying tanks, and providing logistics support for missile programs. In 1962, the facility was renamed Anniston Army Depot and redesignated as a Class II installation under the U.S. Army Supply and Maintenance Command, which later merged with the Army Material Command (AMC). In 1976, ANAD was placed under the direction of the U.S. Army Depot System Command (DESCOM) under AMC.
During its operation, a variety of industrial wastes were generated and disposed of at numerous locations within the site boundaries. The majority of these wastes were generated and disposed of in the Southeast Industrial Area (SIA) of the site. Waste generated on ANAD originated from industrial operations, ammunition inspection/renovation/maintenance, and daily living. The general chemical wastes produced at ANAD were degreasing sludges and liquids, paint wastes, phenols, acids, and electroplating sludges and liquids.
Waste management practices at ANAD included wastewater treatment plants and landfills areas. Various chemicals generated through the depot's industrial operations were treated in the wastewater treatment plants and others were disposed of in landfill areas, waste pits, and lagoons. The maintenance and decommissioning operations of munitions created a variety of waste disposal areas including detonation areas, burning grounds, and TNT burial pits. Additionally, as a result of normal operations on ANAD, there have been a number of documented and undocumented spills involving potentially hazardous materials.
Since 1979, a series of studies have revealed contamination in on-and off-depot ground water. By 1984, the majority of known waste and contaminated soils within Landfill and Trench Areas was excavated and removed. In 1982, ground water was tested around the Metal Plating Shop and high levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were found. From 1982 to 1987, various technologies were examined for addressing this contamination. Pumping of the ground water from around the Metal Plating Shop and treatment with air strippers was initiated in 1987. In 1989, the site was placed on the National Priority List (NPL).
ANAD is a facility that encompasses 15,200 acres in the southwest corner of Calhoun County in the rolling hills of rural northeastern Alabama. The depot is primarily used for rebuilding and maintaining tanks and other heavy equipment, performing missile maintenance, repairing and rebuilding small arms (Anniston is the Army's only small arms repair facility), receiving, maintaining, storing and issuing ammunition and equipment, and providing services worldwide to the active Army, reserve components and to the allies of the United States. The Depot is known as the "tank rebuild center of the free world" and is one of the largest U.S. Army ammunition storage facilities.
The depot consists primarily of ammunition storage facilities with administrative, industrial, recreational, and housing facilities. The depot is located approximately five miles west of the city of Anniston and two miles from Coldwater Spring. Coldwater Spring is the water supply for the city of Anniston and almost all of the Northern Calhoun County. The northern portion of the ANAD site drains to the north into Cane Creek, while the southern portion drains via Dry Creek and into the Choccolocco Creek System. Dry Creek is classified as a fish and wildlife stream by the State of Alabama. The two largest lakes within ANAD (Cone Lake and 5-Acre Lake) are located in the southern portion of ANAD. A state fish hatchery and commercial catfish ponds are located just south of ANAD along the southern drainage routes. The unusual geology of the area makes it difficult to assess the direction of groundwater flow or the origin of Coldwater Spring.
The ANAD is located in Calhoun County, Alabama. The nearest city is Anniston. African Americans are over represented in the state, county, and city when compared with the percentage African Americans in the nation. African Americans make up about 12 percent of the U.S. population. ANAD is located in Alabama, a state where African Americans comprise 25.2 percent of the state population. This figure represents two times the percentage of African Americans in the U.S. population. The African American population (18.6%) in Calhoun County, Alabama is one and a half times larger than the national average, but slightly smaller than the percentage African Americans in the state. (See Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1)
Anniston has a population of 26,623 persons. A total of 11,833 (44.4%) of Anniston residents are African American. The percentage of African Americans in Anniston is three and a half times greater than the percentage of African Americans found in the U.S. population; just under two times the percentage African Americans found in Alabama; and more than double the percentage African Americans in Calhoun County.
The 1990 poverty rates in Alabama (17.9%), Calhoun County (14.9%), and Anniston (23.9%) are higher than the 12 percent national poverty rate. One of every four Anniston residents fell below the poverty line. Generally, minority residents in Calhoun County and Anniston were poorer than their white counterparts. (See Table 4.2 and Figure 4.2)
Table 4.2 Economic Characteristics for Geographic Areas Surrounding the ANAD
Proximity to Other Polluting Facilities
The data in Tables 4.3 and 4.4 shows the location of polluting facilities in Calhoun County by race. Nearly one of every two polluting facilities is found in mostly white areas (under 10% minority). However, these facilities are spread across over 490 square miles or 80 percent of the county's land area. On the other hand, one fourth of the polluting facilities in Calhoun County is concentrated in a majority African American area that takes less than two percent of the county's land area. The African American community has over 36 percent of the county's TRI facilities. High poverty areas, where the poverty rate exceeds 20 percent, were host to 23 percent of the polluting facilities (see Table 4.3). A geographic display of waste sites, air facilities, waste water dischargers, and TRI facilities is presented in Figures 4.3 and 4.4.
Tables 4.3, 4.4
Census tracts were used to derive the total area for Calhoun County. For inclusion purposes the US Census Bureau delineates coastal tracts with five extra miles over the water. This causes the inconsistencies between Tables 4.1, 4.3 and 4.4.
Figures 4.1 - 4.4 (Maps of Anniston, AL)
Anniston is home to Fort McClellan where another Superfund cleanup is underway. Other industrial facilities have added to the hazardous waste burden borne by local citizens. The nearby African American community has borne the brunt of the plant's pollution and contamination. Contamination from the local Monsanto chemical plant has prompted a citizens class action lawsuit and company buy out of nearby residents. The plant is also one of the largest TRI emitters in Anniston.
Case Study #2: Brunswick, Georgia
There are two superfund sites in Brunswick, Georgia: Hercules 009 Landfill and LCP Chemicals. Hercules 009 Landfill covers 7 acres on a 16 -acre parcel of land. Hercules manufactured the pesticide toxaphene and disposed of about 19,300 tons of toxaphene sludge in the landfill. The landfill began operations in 1976 with a State permit which was revoked in 1980.
LCP Chemicals has contaminated the soil, wetlands, waters, and streams surrounding it with PCB's and mercury. This facility is located along tidal marshlands and covers 550 acres. It was proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List (NPL) in October 1995. EPA and Georgia Environmental Protection Division (EPD) found mercury in the soil, sediment, ground water, and air samples on the site in very high levels. Mercury was also found in aquatic life caught in the Turtle River and in birds from the nearby estuarine area. Lead, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have also been found at the site.
The Hercules 009 Landfill and LCP Chemicals are located in Glynn County, Georgia, within the city limits of Brunswick. African Americans are over represented in the state, county, city, and census tract in which the site is located when compared with the percentage of African Americans nationally (12%). Both sites are located in Georgia, a state where African Americans comprise 26.9% of the population, which is twice the national average. African Americans make up 26.3% of the population of Glynn County, which is slightly lower than the state percentage (See Table 4.5 and Figure 4.5).
Table 4.5 Population Characteristics for Geographic Areas Surrounding Hercules and LCP Sites
Brunswick, the city in which the sites are located, has a total population of 16,433 persons. A total of 9,606, or 58.5% of the residents are African Americans. The percentage of African Americans in Brunswick is almost five times the national average, and more than twice the percentage for the state and county, respectively.
The census tract in which the sites are located shows an even higher disparity with respect to the over representation of African Americans. Of a total population of 4,380 persons living in the census tract, 3,399, or 77.6%, are African Americans. This figure represents six and one half times the national average, two and one half times the state and county figures, and one and one half times the percentage for the city.
The 1990 poverty rates in Georgia (14.3%), Glynn County (14.1%), Brunswick (20.2%), and the census tract (38.3%), are all higher than the 12% national poverty rate. More than one out of every three residents of the census tract falls below the poverty line, and one out of every five residents of the City of Brunswick falls below the poverty line. (See Table 4.6 and Figure 4.6)
Table 4.6 Economic Characteristics for Geographic Areas Surrounding the Hercules and LCP sites
Generally, minority residents in Georgia, Glynn County, Brunswick, and the census tract, are poorer than their white counterparts. At all levels, the per capita income for whites is significantly higher than those for African Americans. The census tract shows a median household income ($12,653) of less than half that of the city ($25,153), county ($27,887), and the state ($29,021).
Proximity to Other Polluting Facilities
The data presented in Tables 4.7 and 4.8 and Figures 4.3 and 4.4 shows the location of polluting facilities in Glynn County by race and by poverty status. Nearly one out of every two facilities (44.4%) located in Glynn County is found in a predominantly minority area. However, these 12 facilities are spread across a 13.3 square mile area, representing only 2.3% of the county s total 585.5 square miles. The Hercules site and the LCP site, the only Superfund sites in the county, are located in a mostly minority area. Also, 66.7% of all Hazardous Waste (BRS) sites and 75% of all Wastewater Dischargers (PCS) are in the 13.3 square mile area. A total number of fifteen out of twenty-seven sites, or 55.5%, are located in areas of less than 50% minority. Only three polluting facilities, or 11.1%, are located in areas of less than 10% minority, even though these areas include almost 25% of the total area for the county.
Tables 4.7, 4.8
Census tracts were used to derive the total area for Glynn County. For inclusion purposes the US Census Bureau delineates coastal tracts with five extra miles over the water. This causes the inconsistencies between Tables 4.5, 4.7 and 4.8.
Figures 4.5 - 4.8 (Maps of Brunswick, GA)
High poverty areas, where the poverty rate exceed 20% are host to more than 50% of the polluting facilities. Areas with poverty rates of 20% or lower received less than 50% of the polluting facilities while covering more than 95% of the total county area. A graphic display of the Air facilities, wastewater dischargers and TRI facilities are presented in Figure 4.7. Superfund, Non-NPL CERCLA sites, and hazardous waste sites are presented in Figure 4.8.
Case Study #3: Charleston, South Carolina
Calhoun Park Area Site is located on the eastern side of the Charleston South Carolina, peninsula. The site is bordered on the north by Charlotte Street, west by Washington Street, south by Laurens Street and east by Concord Street. The site comprises three properties totaling approximately 18 acres and includes the Charlotte Street electrical sub-station, owned and operated by the South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G); Calhoun Park, a public park owned by the Housing Authority of the City of Charleston (HACC) and leased to the City of Charleston; and Ansonborough Homes, a housing project owned by HACC. HACC is a housing supplier funded by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. The Ansonborough Homes complex and park are closed, and SCE&G currently operates the electrical sub-station. Each of the three entities, SCE&G, HACC, and the City of Charleston are Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) because of their ownership and/or management of operations on the contaminated properties. The Site area properties have a long history of a variety of industrial uses, including a coal gasification plant, chemical plant, wood preserving plant, lumber mill operations, scrap metal dealerships, and the U.S. Navy occupation from 1942-1947.
Bayside Gardens and Manor Apartment Complex. Exxon and the owner of the complex have volunteered to clean up the tar-like material. Clean-up activities are scheduled to begin January 23, 1996. This will involve digging up the tar and soil near each surface location. This material will be hauled away in trucks and disposed of properly. Each hole in the ground will be filled in with compacted clay, topsoil, and grass seed. The circular turnaround and parking area south of Building 105 will be fixed to remove the tar from the pavement. In August 1995, an investigation was conducted at the complex to determine how much of the tar-like material was present in the ground. Underground soil samples show that the tar-like material generally appears in an area which was a marsh. The marsh was apparently filled many years ago with soil that probably contained this tar like material. This material which over the years has come through the ground surface, has been found at approximately 34 locations. Samples of the tar-like substance show that this material is a petroleum-based product (like asphalt) which does not present an imminent risk to human health and/or the environment.
Koppers Company, Inc .(Charleston Plant) Superfund Site. The Koppers site is located in the Charleston Heights section of Charleston, South Carolina and lies to the north of downtown Charleston on the west side of the peninsula formed by the Ashley and Cooper Rivers. The site is approximately 102 acres in size and consists of a number of parcels of property that currently contain a variety of commercial operations. The present use of the area surrounding the site to the north, south and east consists of a mixture of industrial, commercial and residential properties. The Ashley River borders the site to the west. The total resident, student and worker population within a 4-mile radius of the site is approximately 150,000. Cresote was the primary preservative used over the life of the plant. Pentachlorophenol ( penta ) and Copper Chromium Arsenate (CCA) were also used to a lesser degree. On March 29, 1995 the Record of Decision was signed.
US Naval Base Cleanup. This base is a RCRA facility. The operational closure of Naval Base Charleston was April 1, 1996. This site covers 1600 acres, approximately 19,000 personnel, 68 tenant activities, $2.3 billion plant value, 38 ships and subs and approximately 836 buildings and structures. On September 9, 1993, William Perry (Deputy Secretary of Defense) provided guidance on establishing these BCTs which emphasizes the president's plan to speed up the closing of military bases in the United States while creating productive partnerships with community stakeholders. At the same time, environmental cleanup occurs in addition to establishing Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) teams to assist in transferring the base property over to the community. The BRAC teams are given full responsibility in facilitating the reuse and redevelopment of the base property. EPA, the state of Charleston and DOD created the Restoration Advisory Board (RAB) to allow community stakeholders to have an active role in the decision-making process of environmental cleanup at the Naval Base. The Naval Base is totally responsible for cleaning up the base property before the property is transferred to the community stakeholders in Charleston. The property reuse plan for the Naval Base must be consistent with NEPA and RCRA constraints which includes mainly incorporating the voice of community folks in public hearings and RAB meetings. The closure of the Naval base will create a 6.6% unemployment rate of 4.5% for September 1996.
Calhoun Park Superfund site is located in Charleston County, South Carolina, within the city limits of Charleston. African Americans are over represented in the state, county, city, and census tract in which the site is located when compared with the percentage of African American nationally (12%). Calhoun Park is located in South Carolina, a state in which African Americans are 29.8% of the population, more than twice the national average. African Americans make up 34.9% of the population of Charleston County, which is 5.1% higher than the state and 22.9% higher than the national average. (See Table 4.9 and Figure 4.9)
Table 4.9 Population Characteristics for Geographic Areas Surrounding Calhoun Park
Charleston, the city in which the site is located, has a total population of 80,414 persons. A total of 33,490, or 41.6% of the total population are African Americans. The percentage of African Americans in Charleston is almost three and a half times the national average, and almost one and a half times the percentage for the state of South Carolina.
The census tract in which the site is located shows a high disparity with respect to the over representation of African Americans. Of a total population of 1,382 persons living in the census tract, 431, or 31.2%, are African American This figure represents almost three times the national average.
The 1990 poverty rates in South Carolina (14.9%), Charleston County (16.4%), Charleston (20.2%), and the census tract (40.1%), are all higher than the 12% national poverty rate. Almost one out of every two residents of the census tract falls below the poverty line, and one out of every five residents of the City of Charleston falls below the poverty line.
Table 4.10 Economic Characteristics for Geographic Areas Surrounding Calhoun Park
Generally, minority residents in South Carolina, Charleston County, Charleston, and the census tract, are poorer than their white counterparts. At all levels, the per capita income for whites is more than twice that those for African Americans. (See Table 4.10 and Figure 4.10). The census tract shows a median household income ($11,349) of less than half that of the city ($25,153), county ($26,875), and the state ($26,256).
Proximity to Other Polluting Facilities
The data presented in Tables 4.11 and 4.12 and Figures 4.11 and 4.12 shows the location of polluting facilities in Charleston County by race and by poverty status. One out of every two facilities (24.8%) located in Charleston County is found in areas which are 50% or higher minority. More than 80% of the facilities in the county are located in areas of more than 20% minority. The two Superfund sites are located in an area which is 20% to 50% minority. Also, 82.8% of the air facilities, 75% of the air quality monitoring facilities, 84% of the hazardous waste facilities, 74% of the CERCLA facilities, and 95% of the TRI facilities are located on areas with more than 20% minority. Only seven polluting facilities, or 5.3%, are located in areas of less than 10% minority.
Calhoun Park is located in area in which the poverty rate is higher than 30%. CERCLA and TRI facilities are over represented in areas with poverty rates of more than 20% with 52.2% and 50.0%, respectively. A graphic display of the Air facilities, wastewater dischargers and TRI facilities are presented in Figure 4.11. Superfund, Non-NPL CERCLA sites, and hazardous waste sites are presented in Figure 4.12.
Tables 4.11, 4.12
Census tracts were used to derived the total area for Charleston County. For inclusion purposes the US Census Bureau delineates coastal tracts with five extra miles over water. This causes the inconsistencies between Tables 4.9, 4.11 and 4.12.
Figures 4.9 - 4.12 (Maps of Charleston, SC)
Case Study #4: Fort Lauderdale, Florida
The Wingate Road Municipal Incinerator and Landfill Site is located at 1300 NW 31st Avenue in Fort Lauderdale, Florida The site was placed on the NPL in 1990. The site is bordered on the west by NW 31st Avenue, to the north by a privately owned junk yard, to the northeast by a privately owned lake known as Rock Pit Lake, and to the east and south by a residential neighborhood.
The site is approximately 60 acres in size and includes two active incinerator buildings, cooling water treatment structures, and ash and solid waste landfill, a vehicle maintenance areas, and various buildings. The study area also includes a percolation pond, known as Lake Stupid. The site is owned and was operated by the City of Fort Lauderdale.
The Landfill area is approximately 40 acres in size, and is densely overgrown with brush and trees. The remaining 20 acres is known as the southern portion of the site and currently leased by the City of Fort Lauderdale Production Central, Inc. which uses the site for film support and production activities.
The Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study was conducted by the City of Fort Lauderdale and their consultants under EPA oversight, and were completed in 1994. The proposed plan was sent to the public in late 1994, and the public meeting was held December 12, 1994.
EPA has drafted a Record of Decision and is in position to send special notice to the PRP's to begin negotiations for Remedial Design and Remedial Action. The selected remedy includes excavation of solid and sediment with placement on the landfill, construction of the landfill cap, monitoring on ground water, surface water, and fish tissue.
The Record of Decision was finalized on May 14, 1996. The Fort Lauderdale Community Development Corporation has recently received a TAG Grant from EPA and is currently accepting proposals from potential consultants. A Community Advisory Group (CAG) was created around the environmental, health and economic development issues of the Wingate site.
The Wingate Incinerator and Landfill is located in Broward County, Florida, within the city limits of Fort Lauderdale. African Americans as well as all minorities are over represented in the census tract in which the site is located when compared with the percentage of African Americans in Broward County, the state of Florida, and nationally. The landfill is located in Florida, a state where African Americans comprise 13.6% of the population, 1.6% higher than the national average. African Americans make up 15.4% of the population of Broward County, which is slightly higher than the state percentage. (See Table 4.13 and Figure 4.13)
Table 4.13 Population Characteristics for Geographic Areas Surrounding the Wingate Site
Fort Lauderdale, the city in which the landfill is located, has a total population of 149,377 persons. A total of 41,997, or 28.1% of the residents are African American. The percentage of African Americans in Fort Lauderdale is more than twice the percentage for the state.
The census tract in which the landfill is located shows an even higher disparity with respect to the over representation of African Americans. Of a total population of 7,797 persons living in the census tract, 7,561, or 97.0% are African Americans. This figure represents more than eight times the national average, more than seven times the percentage for the state, more than six times the percentage for the county, and almost three and a half times the percentage for the city.
The 1990 poverty rates for Florida (12.4%), the city of Fort Lauderdale (16.6%), and the census tract (27.6%), are all higher than the 12% national poverty rate. The County of Broward (10.1%) has a slightly lower poverty rate than the national poverty rate. Nearly one out of every three residents of the census tract falls below the poverty line.
Table 4.14 Economic Characteristics for Geographic Areas Surrounding the Wingate Site
Generally, minority residents in Florida, Broward County, Fort Lauderdale, and the census tract, are poorer than their white counterparts. At all levels, the per capita income for whites is higher than those for African Americans. (See Table 4.14 and Figure 4.14). The Census Tract shows a per capita income ($7,085) of less than half that of the city ($19,814), and significantly lower than the amount for the county ($16,883) and state ($14,698).
Proximity to Other Polluting Facilities
The data presented in Tables 4.15 and 4.16 and Figures 4.15 and 4.16 shows the location of polluting facilities in Broward County by race and by poverty status. Forty one percent of the polluting facilities are located in areas which are less than 10% minorities, even though these areas cover almost 70% (59.0 square miles) of the total area of the county (87.2 square miles). On the other hand, 47.2% of the polluting facilities are located in areas which are 10% to 20% minority, in an area of 8.8 square miles (10.1% of the total area for the county). The Wingate Landfill is located in an area in the county which is 50% or higher minority. Areas in which the poverty rates are lower than 10% are host to 30.3% of the polluting facilities while covering 66.2% (57.7 square miles) of the total county area.
A graphic display of the Air facilities, wastewater dischargers and TRI facilities are presented in Figure 4.15. Superfund, Non-NPL CERCLA sites, and hazardous waste sites are presented in Figure 4.16.
Tables 4.15, 4.16
Census tracts were used to derive the total area for Broward County. For inclusion purposes the US Census Bureau delineates coastal tracts with five extra miles over the water. This causes the inconsistencies between Tables 4.1, 4.3 and 4.4.
Figures 4.13 - 4.16 (Maps of Ft. Lauderdale, FL)
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