SECOND NATIONAL PEOPLE OF COLOR ENVIRONMENTAL LEADERSHIP SUMMIT
RESOURCE PAPERS: A SYNTHESIS (1)
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Edited by Robert D. Bullard
Clark Atlanta University
All communities are not created equal. After much prodding from environmental justice advocates, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) acknowledged its mandate to protect all Americans. The EPA defines environmental justice as: "The fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies. Fair treatment means that no group of people, including racial, ethnic, or socio-economic groups should bear a disproportionate share of the negative environmental consequences resulting from industrial, municipal, and commercial operations or the execution of federal, state, local, and tribal programs and policies."(2)
Call for Resource Papers
In order to have substantive resource materials going into and coming out of the Summit II, a national call for papers was made resulting in over two-dozen papers. The resource papers were written by the nation's leading academics, policy analysts, legal scholars, health experts, and practitioners. The papers are designed for use in the Summit II general sessions, workshops, hands-on training, and meeting deliberations. The Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University coordinated the commissioned resource papers series and prepared the report summaries. The major findings and recommendations of these papers are as follow:
HEALTH & SAFETY
Cancer and the Environment. Of the 80,000 pesticides and other chemicals in use today, 10 percent are recognized as carcinogens.(3) There are more than 8 million Americans who have cancer.(4) Cancer-related deaths in the U.S. increased from 331,000 in 1970 to 521,000 in 1992, with an estimated 30,000 death attributed to chemical exposure.(5) The fraction of cancer deaths caused by occupational exposures vary from 4 percent to over 20 percent due to the lack of data on the carcinogenic potential of most industrial chemicals and the absence of effective public health surveillance systems for occupational disease.(6)
Childhood Lead Poisoning. Lead poisoning continues to be the number one environmental health threat to children in the United States, especially poor children, children of color, and children living in inner cities.(7) An estimated 1.7 million children aged 1 to 5 years have blood lead levels of 10 ug/dl or greater.(8) Over 28.4 percent of all low-income African American children are lead poisoned compared to 9.8 percent of low-income white children. Many children living near smelting and mining communities also have elevated blood lead levels. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the effect of lead poisoning to be about 1 to 3 points of IQ lost for each 10 ug/dl lead level. At higher levels, the effect may be larger. Lead affects almost every organ and system in the body-including the kidneys and the reproductive system.
Migrant Farm Workers and Pesticides. Between 3-5 million migrant farm workers labor in the U.S. fields at low wages and unsafe, unsanitary, and unjust work conditions. Farm work is the second most dangerous occupation in the United States. Farm workers suffer from the highest rate of chemical injuries of any workers in the United States. EPA estimates that pesticide exposure causes farm workers and their families to suffer between 10,000 to 20,000 immediate illnesses annually, and additional thousands of illnesses later in life.(9) Of the 25 most heavily used agricultural pesticides, 5 are toxic to the nervous system; 18 are skin, eye, or lung irritants, 11 have been classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as cancer-causing; 17 cause genetic damage; and 10 cause reproductive problems (in test of laboratory animals).(10) Annual use of the pesticides causing each of these types of health problems totals between one and four hundred million pounds.(11) Farms employing less than 10 workers are exempt from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Over 85% of migrant farm workers work on farms with fewer than 10 employees. Over 80% of migrant farm workers in the U.S. are Latinos.
Migrant Children. An estimated 250,000 children of farm workers in the U.S. migrate each year, and 90,000 of them migrate across international borders; half of all migrant children have worked in fields still wet with pesticide and more than one third have been sprayed directly; over 72.8% of migrant children are completely without health insurance.
Toxic Production. Approximately 80,000 different chemicals are now in commercial use with nearly six trillion pounds produced annually in the United States. (12) More than 80% of these chemicals have never been screened to learn whether they cause cancer, much less tested to see if they harm the nervous system, the immune system, the endocrine system or the reproductive system.(13) The current U.S. approach is also not based on real life exposures since people and animals are not exposed to one chemical in isolation, but rather are exposed to an array of toxic chemicals.(14)
Toxic Public Housing. Over 870,000 of the 1.9 million (46 percent) housing units for the poor, mostly minorities, sit within about a mile of factories that reported toxic emissions to the Environmental Protection Agency.(15)
Toxic Schools. More than 600,000 students in Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Michigan and California were attending nearly 1,200 public schools that are located within a half mile of federal Superfund or state-identified contaminated sites.(16) No state except California has a law requiring school officials to investigate potentially contaminated property and no federal or state agency keeps records of public or private schools that operate on or near toxic waste or industrial sites.(17)
NATURAL RESOURCES AND ECOLOGY
Dirty Power Plants. More than 75% of African Americans live within 30 miles of a coal-fired power plant compared with 56% of whites. And more than 70% live in areas that violate national air quality standards. Power plants are one of the biggest industrial source of pollution contributing 38% of all carbon dioxide, the most significant greenhouse gas, emitted from burning fossil fuels in the United States placing power plants at the center of the debate on climate change.
Energy Insecurity. The U.S. has over 217 million cars, buses, and trucks that consume 67 percent of the nation's oil. Transportation-related oil consumption in the U.S. has risen 43 percent since 1975. The United States accounts for almost one-third of the world's vehicles. With just five percent of the world's population, Americans consume more than 25 percent of the oil produced worldwide.(18) More important, almost 60 percent of our oil comes from foreign sources.(19) In addition to health and environment reasons for the U.S. to move our transportation beyond oil to more secure and sustainable alternative fuels, there are compelling energy, security, and economic reasons to invest in clean fuels technology. Global pressure on the world's dwindling oil supply will only add to energy insecurity at home and abroad. Investment in clean fuel technology would not only have considerable environmental, economic, and health benefits, but would go a long way in promoting energy security.
Energy and Native Americans. Nationwide, Indian lands are grossly underserved by electricity services. According to a recent Energy Information Administration report, an average of 14.2% of tribal households in the country are without electricity.(20) This is ten times the average for the rest of America. Ironically, 20% of the energy resources in the U.S. are located in Indian Country, which combined together occupy land areas equal to the size of Texas.
Asthma Epidemic. Air pollution costs Americans $10 to $200 billion a year.(21) The number of asthma sufferers doubled from 6.7 million in 1980 to 17.3 million in 1998.(22) Over 4.8 million asthma sufferers are children.(23) Asthma hits poor, inner-city dwellers, and people of color the hardest. African Americans and Latino are almost three times more likely than whites to die from asthma.(24) In 1995, more than 5,000 Americans died from asthma.(25) The hospitalization rate for African Americans and Latinos is 3 to 4 times the rate for whites.(26) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that asthma accounts for more than 10 million lost school days, 1.2 million emergency room visits, 15 million outpatient visits, and over 500,000 hospitalizations each year. Asthma cost Americans over $14.5 billion in 2000.(27)
Poverty and Pollution. Poverty and pollution are intricately linked.(28) Poor people are disproportionately exposed to hazards(29) in their environment that in turn makes them sick due to the lack of clean and fresh water, and adequate food, shelter, fuel and air.(30) Poverty impacts health(31) because it determines how much resources poor people have and defines the amount of environmental risks(32) they will be exposed to in their immediate environment. An estimated 40 percent of world deaths can now be attributed to various environmental factors, especially organic and chemical pollutants.
Toxic Wastes and Race. Nationally, three out of five African Americans and Latino Americans live in communities with abandoned toxic waste sites.(33) Discrimination influences land use, housing patterns, and infrastructure development. Zoning ordinances, deed restrictions, and other land-use mechanisms have been widely used as a "NIMBY"(34) (not in my backyard) tool, operating through exclusionary practices.(35)
Brownfields. The U.S. General Accounting Office estimates that there are between 130,000 and 450,000 brownfields (abandoned waste sites) scattered across the urban landscape from New York to California.(36) Most of these brownfields are located in or near low-income, working class, and people of color communities.(37)
Geography of Air Pollution. Air pollutants adversely affect the health of 4 to 5 billion people worldwide. A growing world population is burning more fossil fuels, emitting more industrial pollution and driving more automobiles. The number of automobiles is increasing three times faster than the rate of population growth. According to National Argonne Laboratory researchers, 57 percent of whites, 65 percent of African Americans, and 80 percent of Hispanics live in 437 counties with substandard air quality.(38) In the heavily populated Los Angeles air basin, the South Coast Air Quality Management District estimates that 71 percent of African Americans and 50 percent of Latinos live in areas with the most polluted air, compared to 34 percent of whites.
Motor Vehicle Pollution. Transportation sources account for 80 percent of carbon monoxide (CO), 45 percent of NOx, 36 percent of hydrocarbons (HC), 32 percent of CO2, 19 percent of PM, and 5 percent of SO2 emissions, nationally.(39) Transportation-related sources account for over 30 percent of the primary smog-forming pollutants emitted nationwide and 28 percent of the fine particulates. Vehicle emissions are the main reason 121 Air Quality Districts in the U.S. are in noncompliance with the 1970 Clean Air Act's National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Moreover, emissions from cars, trucks, and buses cause 60-90 percent of air pollution in cities. Transportation-related emissions also generate more than a quarter of the greenhouse gases.(40)
Diesel Exhausts. Long-term exposure to high levels of diesel exhausts (generally at the level of occupational exposure,) increase risk of developing lung cancer.(41) Diesel engine emissions contribute to serious public health problems including: premature mortality, aggravation of existing asthma, acute respiratory symptoms, chronic bronchitis, and decreased lung function. These emissions have also been linked to increased incidences of various cancers in more than 30 health studies.(42) Diesel particulate matter alone contributes to 125,000 cancers in the United States.(43)
Transportation Racism. Transportation and civil rights have been linked for more than a century. The 1896 U.S. Supreme Court Plessy v. Ferguson decision codified "Jim Crow" segregation. Despite the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court decision, transportation in many metropolitan areas is still "separate and unequal."(44) Transportation investments have contributed to and exacerbated racial segregation and inner-city(45) disinvestments.(46) Public transit has received roughly $50 billion since the creation of the Urban Mass Transit Administration over thirty years ago.(47) People of color riders (Blacks, Latinos, Asians, Native Americans) account for nearly 60 percent of all transit passengers.(48)
Roads vs. Transit. Roadway projects have received over $205 Billion since 1956.(49) Other than housing, Americans spend more on transportation than any other household expense.(50) The average American household spends 18% of its annual income, or more than $6,200, on transportation. Many low-income families often spend more than one-third of their income on transportation. Americans spend more on driving than on health care, education or food.
Sprawl and Social Equity. Downtowns are losing its share of office space to sprawl development. Detroit had the highest percentage (69.5 %) of office space outside the city.(51) Sprawl-fueled growth is widening the gap between the "haves" and "have nots" and is pushing people further and further apart geographically, politically, economically, and racially.
Health Impact of Sprawl. Not walking is contributing to "wasteline" sprawl, obesity, and ultimately ill health.(52) Obesity among American adults has increased 60% over the past decade. Today, one in five American adults is defined as obese. One quarter of American children aged 6-17 is overweight. Changes in our lifestyles and communities have played the greatest role in the decline of physical activity among Americans.(53)
COMMUNITY & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Corporate Welfare. Corporations routinely pollute the air, ground, and drinking water while being subsidized by tax breaks from the state. Many states, particularly in the South, have a "look-the-other-way environmental policy" that subsidizes threats to human health and the natural environment. For example, Louisiana is a leader in doling out corporate welfare to polluters. In the 1990s, the state wiped off the books $3.1 billion in property taxes to polluting companies. The state's top five worse polluters received $111 million dollars over the past decade.(54)
Job-Related Illnesses. An estimated of 137 American workers die from job-related diseases every day.(55) This is more than eight times the number of workers who die from job-related accidents. Every year about 6,000 workers are killed from workplace accidents. Fear of unemployment acts as a potent incentive for many workers to stay in and accept jobs that are health threatening. This practice amounts to "economic blackmail." Workers are often forced to choose between unemployment and a job that may result in risks to their health, their family's health, and the health of their community.
Sweatshops. The Department of Labor estimates that more than half of the country's 22,000 sewing shops violate minimum wage and overtime laws.(56) Many of these workers labor in dangerous conditions including blocked fire exits, unsanitary bathrooms, and poor ventilation. Government surveys also reveal that 75% of U.S. garment shops violate safety and health laws.(57)
Just Transition. Greater financial resources are needed to build alliances between grassroots/rank-and-file alliances, as well as support for national and international level dialogue among workers, environmental justice networks, community based organizations, institutions, and policy makers.
GLOBAL AND INTERNATIONAL
Poverty and Pollution. Poverty and pollution are intricately linked.(58) Poor people are disproportionately exposed to hazards in their environment that in turn makes them sick due to the lack of clean and fresh water, and adequate food, shelter, fuel and air. Three environmental problems (contaminated drinking water, untreated human excrement, and air pollution) account for 7.7 million deaths annually or 15 percent of the global death toll of 52 million. One in five children in the poorest regions of the world will not live to see their fifth birthday, mainly because of environment-related diseases, i.e., mostly due to malaria, acute respiratory infections or diarrhea-all of which are largely preventable. This amounts to 11 million childhood deaths a year worldwide.(59)
Water Poverty. An estimated one-sixth of the world's population (1.1 billion people) remains without access to improved sources of water. More than 1.4 billion people lack access to safe water. Dirty water is the worlds "deadliest" pollutant.(60) Privatization of water looms as a major environmental and economic justice issue in the 21st century.
Access to Clean Energy. More than two billion people in the world today do not have access to sufficient energy to meet their basic needs. Some 80 percent of all energy used in the world comes from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are the main contributors to environmental and health problems. In 1998, renewable energy accounted for only about 2% of all primary energy consumption globally.
Toxics on the U.S.-Mexico Border. All along the Lower Rio Grande River Valley maquiladoras dump their toxic waste into the river, from which over 95 percent of the region's residents get their drinking water. Shantytowns or colonias are home to 1 of every 5 residents of the 14 Texas counties along the U.S.-Mexico border. Of the 11 million border inhabitants, about 50% live in the three twin cities of: Ciudad Juárez - El Paso; Mexicali - Calexico; and Tijuana - San Diego. In 1998, about 3,000 maquiladoras were in operation within the country of Mexico, of which 2,400 were situated in the border region. In 1997,maquiladoras employed more than 900,000 people working at more than 3,000 plants, mainly along the border. Heavy exposure to toxics is not limited to workers. The maquiladoras produce large quantities of hazardous waste, little of which finds it way back to the country of origin for proper disposal. In addition, the air and water of local residential communities is fouled by toxic emissions in the air and untreated industrial waste.
Navy War Games on Vieques. The U.S. Navy has used the tiny island of Vieques, Puerto Rico as a bombing range since 1941. Fifty years of military exercises including the use of bombs, artillery shells, depleted uranium ordnance, Agent Orange and napalm have left local communities with serious health problems, destroyed ecosystems, and left "more craters per square kilometer than the moon". Seventy-two percent of the island 9,000 residents live in poverty. The unemployment rate is 50%, and fishing is the only significant industry. Residents voted overwhelmingly for the Navy to leave the island. The Puerto Rico Department of Health found the Vieques cancer rate to be 26% higher than the rest of Puerto Rico from 1985-1989, and one source reports a 300% increase in cancer over the past 20 years. Medical studies have documented health impacts in fishermen and children that could be tied to noise from Navy ship-to-shore shelling. Testing of Vieques children showed accumulated levels of heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, bismuth, mercury, and lead in stool samples. Soils are degraded and contaminated, and both Navy and independent testing of bombing areas have found at least 10 toxic constituents including metals, benzene, and chloroform. Dust clouds carry pollutants toward civilian communities, where effective concentrations of particulates have exceeded federal air criteria.
Radioactive Colonialism. Radioactive colonialism operates in energy production(61) (mining of uranium) on Native and indigenous peoples lands.(62) For example, the U.S. government has approved a nuclear dump in Yucca Mountain, sacred to the Western Shoshone. Over 1,000 atomic bombs have been exploded on Western Shoshone lands in Nevada, the "most bombed nation on earth."
Climate Justice. Climate justice looms as a major environmental justice issue of the 21st century.(63) The United States emits one quarter of the world's gases that cause global warming. People of color are concentrated in cities that failed EPA's ambient air quality standards. Global warming is expected to double the number of cities that currently exceed air quality standards. A study of the fifteen largest American cities found that climate change would increase heat-related deaths by at least 90 percent. People of color are twice as likely to die in a heat wave.
Global warming will increase the number of flood, drought and fire occurrences worldwide. Also, low-income people typically lack insurance to replace possessions lost in storms and floods. Only 25 percent of renters have renters insurance. The potential consequences of a destabilized climate can already be seen in the increased economic costs of property insurance claims due to weather related damages. Property insurers lost an average of $2 billion a year to damage from extreme weather events around the world in the 1980s. By the 1990s, losses averaged more than $12 billion annually. Weather-related losses for the first 10 months of 1998 - some $89 billion - exceed the total losses for all the 1980s.(64)
Climate change will reduce discretionary spending because prices will rise across the board. Low-income families will have to spend even more on food and electricity, which already represent a large proportion of their budgets. Indigenous people are losing traditional medicinal plants to a warming climate, and subsistence households are suffering from the loss of species that are unable to adapt.
HEALTH & SAFETY
End Childhood Lead Poisoning. Lead poisoning is a preventable disease. Childhood lead poisoning should be eliminated as a disease altogether. Target high-risk children, screening, early detection, treatment; increase allocation of medications that help reduce or remove lead; use new, safe lead removal techniques; and dietary improvements.
Arrest Asthma Epidemic. Initiate more community-driven and people of color-centered asthma prevention and/intervention programs in major urban centers where the problem exists.
Building Code Reform. Change building codes, better enforce existing codes and design healthier buildings and building components to enhance ventilation and reduce exposure to toxic chemicals that can impair respiration.(65)
Health Tracking. A network for identifying, investigating, responding to, and preventing environmental health problems in schools is needed to help protect children's health in school. Data systems that link environmental factors with health conditions need to be developed to obtain data for disease prevention and health promotion. Such a network would help to close the gap in knowledge regarding the prevalence and incidence of environmental-related conditions and environmental exposures.(66)
Strengthen Worker Protection Standard (WPS). Farmworkers remain "second-class" workers. One regulation addresses occupational exposure by attempting to reduce the risk of pesticide exposure among farmworkers is the Worker Protection Standard (WPS). While the WPS is a significant step in protecting farmworker health, lack of compliance and enforcement have undermined the law and, as a result, it is not adequately protecting farmworkers.
Precautionary Principle. Using the precautionary principle as a basis for responding to global warming can reduce the costs associated with adapting, as it has for other environmental problems."(67)
Regional Fair Housing Initiatives. Discrimination is still a major barrier to open housing in most regions. Discrimination costs. A targeted regional fair housing strategy could maximize affordable housing, employment, and educational opportunity options for low-income persons and people of color.
Urban Brownfields Redevelopment. Current land-use decision-making favors development in the suburbs or "greenfields" rather than inner city areas. Some policies foster abandonment and infrastructure decline. Alternatively, existing policies, such as criteria for funding water/sewer infrastructure could be modified to favor existing, rather than new development. In addition, "brownfields," or abandoned or underutilized property or buildings, need to be reclaimed and brought back into production. Residents in neighborhoods with brownfields sites must be an integral part of the redevelopment process.(68)
TEA-21 Renewal. Build on, preserve, and strengthen the environmental, health, air quality, equity, and historic preservation framework and provisions of TEA-21. TEA-21 renewal will need to address improved performance and accountability, mobility choices, safety, economic prosperity, energy efficiency, and new transportation investments that meet the needs and challenges of creating healthy, livable and just communities.(69)
Transportation Equity Assessments. Ensure the use performance measures to assess equity impacts (benefits and burdens) of state DOTs and MPOs transportation planning, investment decisions, and policies impact on Title VI protected classes, minority populations, and low-income populations.
Streets for Walking, Bicycles, and Transit. Design communities around people rather than around automobiles.
Public Health and Safety. Fund research that examines the impact that changes in the built environment can have an impact on public health, such as addition of greenspace, sidewalks, bike paths, lighting, crosswalks, traffic calming, etc. Target research funding to community based organizations (CBOs) and historically black colleges/minority institutions (HBCUs/MIs) to study and design remedies to address pedestrian fatalities and transportation safety issues in people of color communities.
Improving Access to Jobs. Sprawl-driven development diverts funds away from central cities. Improving low-income residents' mobility, particularly for those making the transition from welfare to work, may be the difference between employment and unemployment. Innovative programs are needed to improve transportation efficiency, reduce the impacts of transportation on the environment, reduce the need for infrastructure investment, provide efficient access, examine development patterns and involve the community in such efforts.
NATURAL RESOURCES AND ECOLOGY
Equal Access to Parks, Green Space, and Natural Areas. Vigorously enforce nondiscriminatory laws that require equal access to parks, green space, and natural areas, i.e., beaches and waterfronts.
Energy Efficient Housing. Improving energy efficiency in housing is a money saver and could play a major role in improving air quality. Reduction in energy consumption benefits all households. It is especially pertinent for low-income residents since efficiency measures save money, improve human health, reduce air pollution, increase building durability, and enhance property values.(70)
Conversion to Clean Fuel Vehicles. There is an urgent need to move the nation's transportation systems away from its current over-dependence on oil.(71) A specific policy measure should target specific fleets, including school buses and garbage trucks, for conversion to clean fuels. Local municipalities can require that the school district only purchase clean fuel school buses, that it place emissions controls on existing buses, and accelerate the retirement of the oldest, dirtiest buses on the road.(72) Similar, with their low miles traveled and centralized parking structure, city garbage trucks are an ideal fleet for fueling with compressed natural gas.(73)
Redress Spanish and Mexican Land Grants. Environmental justice for Hispanos is about restoration of their ancestral lands and about building their capacity to manage those lands effectively and wisely. In the meantime, environmental justice is about developing new management approaches among government agencies to work more closely with Hispano communities in the management of natural resources within the public domain and to integrate the values and needs of these communities as priorities within the implementation and enforcement of regulations pertaining to environmental protection and reclamation-that is, management with a sensibility for Hispano cultural preservation.
Renewable Energy. Seek partners to help Tribes realize the economic, environmental and climate benefits of their clean renewable energy resources; address past and ongoing environmental injustices resulting from the building of the mainstream dams on the Missouri River to the detriment of Indian culture and reservation economies, and provide for future tribal, economic, cultural and community revitalization sustainability and capacity building based upon renewable energy generation to federal and private markets within and beyond the region.
Protection of Children from Hazards. Schoolchildren deserve to be protected from environmental hazards in their school; however, no standards exist providing such protections. For example, in the states with OSHA coverage, school employees are covered by standards including: a written hazard communication standard that lists all products with toxic ingredients, access to material safety data sheets, training for employees on chemical hazards; protective equipment for employees to use; a laboratory standard covering science teachers and technicians; emergency evacuation procedures; and access to any environmental monitoring performed by the employer. However, students are not covered by these standards.(74)
Citizen Participation in Cleanup Decision-Making. Environmental restoration should be guided by a citizen council with the authority to guide the cleanup and a public transparent process, with the municipality and people of Vieques in the driver's seat.(75)
Address Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Alaska Natives also suffer from the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPS) that tend to become concentrated in northern latitudes.
COMMUNITY & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Removing the Risks from Brownfields. Removing health risks must be the main priority of all brownfields action plans. Policy requirements and enforcement mechanisms to safeguard environmental health should be strengthened for all brownfields projects located in these communities.
Cross-Sector Brownfields Partnerships. Funding for brownfields pilots from EPA and other federal programs should continue to be made more accessible by community-based non-profits.
Develop Brownfields Partnerships with Academic Institution. Residents in neighborhoods with brownfields sites must be an integral part of the redevelopment process.(76) Many brownfields are located in or near people of color communities and urban colleges and universities. Urban universities, with their multiple social and physical sciences specialists, could be natural partners in land use decision-making in brownfields remediation. A defined role for colleges and universities in close proximity to brownfields pilot programs should be included in the current remediation process from local to federal levels.(77)
Institute Anti-Displacement Provisions in Brownfields Redevelopment. These requirements should be incorporated into all federal, state and local brownfields laws. Since displacement cannot be completely avoided, compensation and assistance in relocation should be provided to individuals and families adversely affected by brownfields redevelopment, including in the case of a greater environmental hazard being discovered during the assessment and remediation processes. Support efforts to expand opportunities for community groups to purchase and redevelop properties in their neighborhoods, and in partnership with state and private entities through existing brownfields redevelopment programs. This should include the provision by government agencies at all levels (but in particular at the local and regional levels) of tax benefits and subsidies typically given to private institutions.(78)
Establish Community Land Trusts. The establishment of Community Land Trusts (CLTs) could allow communities to purchase or obtain brownfields from local governments at below-market rates, and then redevelop them for a variety of community needs including limited-equity housing. CLTs are community-governed nonprofits, with development priorities that are determined by local residents.
Environmental Justice-Driven Community Development. Environmental justice organizations should become involved in redevelopment processes in their neighborhoods in order to integrate brownfields priorities into long-range neighborhood redevelopment plans. This will allow for the use of Tax Increment Finance (TIF) funds accrued by the redevelopment process to fund the cleanup and redevelopment of brownfields sites for community-determined uses.
Community Benefits Plans. Encourage environmental justice movement leaders to develop environmental justice criteria for Community Benefits Plans (modeled after those employed successfully in union organizing) in order to assess the desirability of any given brownfields redevelopment project proposed for a community.
Combat "Brownlining." Environmental justice groups must actively advocate against the "brownlining" practices of financial institutions, which limit their investment in redevelopment projects in neighborhoods with an industrial past (i.e., usually low-income inner city communities of color). As long as the financial capital markets are effectively shutting out communities of color through lending practices that are discriminatory, the majority of brownfields will remain contaminated and underutilized.
Private Industry Relocation Programs. An increasing number of contaminated communities are calling for buyout and relocation. There is a need for an interdisciplinary team that can work with communities to assist them initiate discussions and relocation negotiation offers with local industries. As the recent victory in Norco, Louisiana demonstrates, successful negotiations involve: a lot of corporate and real estate research, bold, targeted activism, "good cop- bad cop" tactics, effective media exposure and quiet diplomacy all coordinated with one integrated strategy. Moreover, successful negotiations always involve a well-organized, well educated, community that is willing to speak for itself with a lot of good help.(79)
Worker Protection. It is essential that the environmental justice movement supports farm worker organizations including the Farm Worker Network for Economic and Environmental Justice (FNEEJ), the Farm Labor Organizing Committee (FLOC), and the United Farm Workers of America (UFW) in their efforts to secure legal rights and collective bargaining contracts with growers.(80)
Environmental Education. Develop strategies and implementation plans to link environmental justice community based organizations and public schools at all levels including community colleges and universities.(81)
Military Toxics. Cease bombing, including with practice bombs, and open burning/open detonation Vieques, Puerto Rico.
Equal Protection. Enforce environmental, health, housing, transportation, and civil rights laws equally across the board. Work toward a legislative "fix" of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that addresses disparate "impact" standard.
Support for the Tribal Sovereignty Protection Initiative of the National Congress of American Indians. This initiative seeks the enactment of legislation by Congress to curb the activism of the Supreme Court in Indian law.
GLOBAL AND INTERNATIONAL
Universal Access to Clean Water. Governments should implement programs to make safe drinking water and adequate sanitation available and affordable to all. Conduct assessment and research on impact of privatization on poor people's access to clean water and sanitation.
Poverty Eradication. Governments should implement poverty eradication programs that target the world's poor that live on less than $1 per day.
Clean and Affordable Energy. Governments should initiate an action program to make available finances and infrastructure to bring clean and affordable and sustainable energy sources to the 2 billion people who lack these energy services by 2012. Governments should adopt a target increasing the global share of new renewable energy sources to 15% by 2010.
Decrease Pesticide Use. Governments should institute protocols, plans, and regulations to decrease industrial pesticide use, including prohibiting the export of banned or never registered pesticides, implement integrated pest management (IPM), evaluate the hazards posed by pesticide exports, and improve the quality and quantity of information pesticide production, trade and use and publish information in the public record.
Global Phase-out of Leaded Gasoline. Total global phase-out of leaded gasoline and lead paint.
Debt Forgiveness and Environmental Reparations. Debt forgiveness and reparations for the harm, damage, contamination, destruction, and suffering caused by global environmental racism. Land reform and redistribution that redresses past discrimination.
Build a Global Environmental Justice Movement. Provide resources to organizations, networks, institutions, and associations to strengthen the global environmental justice movement.
SUBURBAN SPRAWL, TRANSPORTATION EQUITY, AND SMART GROWTH
"Growing Smarter: Building Equity into a Fair Growth Agenda." Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres, Clark Atlanta University.
"Transportation Justice for All: Addressing Equity in the 21st Century." Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres, Clark Atlanta University.
"TEA-21 and Environmental Justice." Nancy Jakowitsch, Surface Transportation Policy Project.
"Brownfields Neighborhoods Revitalization." Juliet Ellis, Charles L. Mason, Jr., Bhavna Shamasunder, Catalina Garzon, Urban Habitat Program, Inc.
"Environmental Reparations for Sustainability and Justice: Why We Cannot Wait." Robin Morris Collin, Williamette University College of Law and Robert W. Collin, University of Oregon.
"Promoting Community Building Through Collaborative Environmental Justice Legal Strategies and Funding Approaches." Deeohn Ferris, Global Environmental Resources, Inc.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT
"Health and Environmental Justice." Balius Walker, Jr., Howard University College of Medicine and Reuben C. Warren, and Stephanie Miles-Richardson, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
"Policy Directives Toward The Protection of Children's Health in School Environments." Nsedu Obot Witherspoon, Children's Environmental Health Network.
"Lead Poisoning in Our Communities." Janet A. Phoenix, Environmental Health Center of the National Safety Council.
"Childhood Asthma Policy and Housing." Janet A. Phoenix, Environmental Health Center of the National Safety Council and and Nsedu Obot Witherspoon, Children Environmental Health Network.
"Breathe at Your Own Risk: Dirty Diesels, Environmental Health and Justice." Swati R. Praskash, West Harlem Environmental Action, Inc.
"Genomic Justice." Jose Morales, Public Interest Biotechnology.
LAND USE, LAND RIGHTS, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
"Equal Access to California's Beaches." Robert Garcia, The City Project at the Center for Law in the Public Interest.
"Environmental Justice and Sustainable Agriculture: Linking Ecological and Social Sides of Sustainability." Devon G. Pena, University of Washington.
"Dimensions of Environmental Justice in Indian Country and Native Alaska." Dean B. Suagee, First Nations Environmental Action, Inc.
"Neighborhood Relocation: Community Issues, Existing Options and New Ideas." Michael J. Lythcott, The Lythcott Company.
"Environmental Justice Issues and Chicano/a Land Grants." Ruben Martinez, University of Texas, San Antonio.
"Vieques, Puerto Rico in Focus Environmental and Health Impacts of Navy Training A Crisis and Its Causes." Deborah Santana, Mills College, Cruz Maria Nazario, University of Puerto Rico, and John Lindsay-Poland, Fellowship of Reconciliation Task Force on Latin America and the Carribbean.
WORKERS AND OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
"Just Transition Alliance: Frontline Workers and Fenceline Communities United for Justice." Jenice L. View, Just Transition Alliance.
"Farmworker Safety and Health." Teresa Niedda and Joan Flocks, Farmworker Health and Safety Institute and University of Florida.
"Community-University Initiatives for the Establishment of Urban Environmental Education Centers to Assist Stakeholder Communities Major Environmental Justice Issues Associated with Urban Colleges and Universities." David A. Padgett, Tennessee State University.
"Reorienting Environmental Education for Environmental Justice." Running Grass, Three Circles Center for Multicultural Environmental Education, and Julian Agyeman, Tufts University.
ENERGY, CLIMATE JUSTICE, AND GLOBALIZATION
"Power Plant Pollution, Public Policy and People of Color." Felicia Davis, Georgia Coalition for the People's Agenda.
"Indigenous Peoples and Renewable Energy: Thinking Locally, Acting Globally - A Modest Native Proposal for Climate Justice from the Northern Great Plains." Robert Gough, Intertribal Council on Utility Policy.
"Ten Actions and Climate Justice Policies." Ansje Miller and Cody Sisco, Environmental Justice and Climate Change Initiative.
"Global Poverty, Pollution, and Public Health," Robert D. Bullard Clark Atlanta University, and Damu Smith, National Black Environmental Justice Network (NBEJN).
This Executive Summary was prepared for the Summit II by staff from the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University, Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres. For additional information, please contact the authors at 223 James P. Brawley Drive, Atlanta, GA 30314. Phone: (404) 880-6911; Fax: (404) 880-6909; E-mail: email@example.com.
1. The opinions expressed in this summary represent those of the authors and not the institution that commissioned the resource papers or the funding agencies.
2. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Guidance for Incorporating Environmental Justice in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analysis. Washington, DC: USEPA, 1998; See Robert Bullard and Glenn Johnson. "Environmental and Economic Justice: Implications for Public Policy." Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, Vol. 4, No.4, 1998: 137-148.
3. Environmental Pollution and Degradation Causes 40 percent of Deaths Worldwide, Cornell Study Finds." Cornell News, September 30, 1998. See http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Sept98/ecodisease.hrs.html.
4. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Environmental Diseases from A to Z. NIH Publication No. 96-4145. http://www.nieehs.nih.gov
5. Environmental Pollution and Degradation Causes 40 percent of Deaths Worldwide, Cornell Study Finds." Cornell News, September 30, 1998. See http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Sept98/ecodisease.hrs.html
6. Occupational and Environmental Working Group-Toronto Cancer Prevention Coalition. Preventing Occupational and Environmental Cancer: A Strategy for Toronto, 2001. Also see http://www.uswa.ca/eng/hs&e/prevcancer.pdf
7. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Environmental Diseases from A to Z. NIH Publication No. 96-4145. http://www.nieehs.nih.gov.
8. "Blood Lead Level Laboratory Reference System." http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/factsheets/bllrs.htm.
9. Caroline Cox. "Working With Poisons on the Farm." Journal of Pesticide Reform, Vol. 14, No.3, (Fall 1994): 2-5; U.S. General Accounting Office. Pesticides on Farms: Limited Capability Exists to Monitor Occupational Illnesses and Injuries. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S. Senate. Washington, D.C. (December 1993).
10. Caroline Cox. "Working With Poisons on the Farm." Journal of Pesticide Reform, Vol. 14, No.3, (Fall 1994): 2-5; A/L. Aspelin. "Pesticide Industry Sales and Usage: 1992 and 1993 Market Estimates. U.S. EPA. Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances." Office of Pesticide Programs. Biological and Economic Analysis Division. Washington, D.C., (June 1994); D.P. Morgan. "Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Washington, D.C.: U.S. EPA. Office of Pesticide Programs. Health Effects Division, 1989; U.S. EPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances. List of chemicals evaluated for carcinogenic potential. Memo from Reto Engler, senior science advisor, Health Effects Division to Health Division Branch Chiefs, et. al. Washington, D.C.(August 31, 1993); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Centers for Disease Control. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. Microfiche Edition. Sweet, D.V. (ed.). Cincinnati, OH (January 1993).
11. Caroline Cox. "Working With Poisons on the Farm." Journal of Pesticide Reform, Vol. 14, No.3, (Fall 1994): 2-5.
12. See http://www.twnside.org.sg/title/gary-cn.htm.
15. "Study: Public Housing is too Often Located Near Toxic Sites." Dallas Morning News, October 3, 2000.See http://www.cnn.com/2000/NATURE/10/03/toxicneighbors.ap/.
16. Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign. March 2001. Poisoned Schools: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions. Falls Church, VA: Center for Health, Environment and Justice; See also http:www.childproofing.org/mapindex.html.
17. Cat Lazaroff. "Pesticide Exposure Threatens Children at School." Environmental News Service, January 5, 2000.
18. Joanna D. Underwood, "Weaning Oil Dependence Helps World Security," The Earth Times November 8, 2001.
19. James S. Cannon, "Statement of James S. Cannon on Behalf of INFORM, Inc." Testimony before the Senate Finance Committee, Washington, DC (July 10, 2001).
20. "Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy Development Potential on Indian Lands", United States Energy Information Administration, April 2001.
21. Robert D. Bullard. "Climate Justice and People of Color." http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/climatechgpoc.html
22. "Asthma's At-A-Glance 1999." http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/asthma_old/ataglance/default.htm
24. Centers for Disease Control, "Asthma: United States, 1980-1990," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 39, 1992: 733-735.; See also Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres. Sprawl City: Race, Politics, and Planning in Atlanta, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2000.
25. "Asthma's At-A-Glance." http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/asthma_old/ataglance/default.htm
26. H.P. Mak, H.Abbey, and R.C. Talamo, "Prevalence of Asthma and Health Service Utilization of Asthmatic Children in an Inner City," Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Vol. 70, 1982: 367-372; I.F. Goldstein and A.L. Weinstein, "Air Pollution and Asthma: Effects of Exposure to Short-Term Sulfur Dioxide Peaks," Environmental Research Vol. 40, 1986: 332-345; J. Schwartz, D. Gold, D.W. Dockey, S.T. Weiss, and F.E. Speizer, "Predictors of Asthma and Persistent Wheeze in a National Sample of Children in the United States," American Review of Respiratory Disease Vol. 142, 1990: 555-562; F. Crain, K. Weiss, J. Bijur, et al., "An estimate of the Prevalence of Asthma and Wheezing among Inner-City Children," Pediatrics Vol. 94, 1994: 356-362.;See also Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres. Race, Equity, and Smart Growth: Why People of Color Must Speak for Themselves. Atlanta, GA: Environmental Justice Resource Center, 2000.
27. "Asthma's At-A-Glance 1999." http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/asthma_old/ataglance/default.htm
28. Robert D. Bullard. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
29. Robert D. Bullard and Beverly H. Wright. "Environmental Justice for All: Community Perspectives on Health and Research Needs." Toxicology and Industrial Health, Vol. 9, No. 5, 1993: 821-841.
30. Robert D. Bullard. "It's not just pollution." Our Planet, Vol.12, No.2, 2001: 22-24.
31. Kenneth Olden. "The Complex Interaction of Poverty, Pollution, Health Status." The Scientist, Vol. 12, No. 2, (February 1998): 7. See NIEHS: Division of Extramural Research and Training: Health Disparities Research, http:www.niehs.nih.gov/dert/programs/translat/hd/ko-art.htm
32. Robert D. Bullard. "It's not just pollution." Our Planet, Vol.12, No.2, 2001: 22-24.
33. Commission for Racial Justice. Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States. New York: New York: United Church of Christ, 1987.
34. Robert D. Bullard and Beverly H. Wright. "The Quest for Environmental Equity: Mobilizing the African-American Community for Social Change." Society and Natural Resources, Vol.3, 1990: 301-311.
35. Robert D. Bullard. "The Legacy of American Apartheid and Environmental Racism." St. John's Journal of Legal Commentary, Vol.9, Issue 2, (Spring 1994): 445-474; See also Robert D. Bullard, Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality (3rd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
36. R. Twombly. "Urban uprising." Environmental Health Perspective Vol. 105, (July1997): 696-701.
37. See Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres. Race, Equity, and Smart Growth: Why People of Color Must Speak for Themselves. Atlanta, GA: Environmental Justice Resource Center, 2000.
38. D. R. Wernett & L. A. Nieves. Breathing polluted air: Minorities are disproportionately exposed. EPA Journal, Vol. 18, 1992: 16-17.
39. See Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres. "Growing Smarter: Building Equity into a Fair Growth Agenda." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
40. James S. Cannon, "Statement of James S. Cannon on Behalf of INFORM, Inc." Testimony before the Senate Finance Committee, Washington, DC (July 10, 2001); See Also Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O Torres. "Transportation Justice for All: Addressing Equity in the 21st Century." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
41. US EPA. United States Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, "Health Assessment Document for Diesel Exhaust," EPA/600/8-90/057E, September 2002; (HEI) Health Effects Institute, Diesel Exhaust: A Critical Analysis of Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects. Cambridge MA, 1995.
42. See Nsedu Obot Witherspoon. "Policy Directives Toward The Protection of Children's Health in School Environments." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
43. (STAPPA / ALAPCO) State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators and the Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials, "Cancer Risk from Diesel Particulate: National and Metropolitan Area Estimates for the United States," March 2000. ;See Also Swati R. Prakash. "Breathe At Your Own Risk: Dirty Diesels, Environmental Health & Justice." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
44. R. D. Bullard and G. S. Johnson. Just Transportation: Dismantling Barriers to Mobility. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 1997.
45. Robert D. Bullard. "Taken for a Ride in Metro Atlanta." Orion Afield, Autumn 2000:28-29.
46. Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres. "Dismantling Transportation Apartheid through Environmental Justice." Progress Surface Transportation Policy Project, Vol.10, No.1, (February/March 2000): 4-5.
47. H. Dittmar and D. Chen. Equity in Transportation Investments. Transportation: Environmental Justice and Social Equity Conference Proceedings. Washington, DC: Surface Transportation Policy Project, 1995.
48. S. Borgren. A Tale of Two Transit Networks: Separate but not Equal. CT Magazine, (September/October 1990).
49. H. Dittmar and D. Chen. Equity in Transportation Investments. Transportation: Environmental Justice and Social Equity Conference Proceedings. Washington, DC: Surface Transportation Policy Project, 1995.
50. Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres. Race, Equity, and Smart Growth: Why People of Color Must Speak for Themselves. Atlanta, GA: Environmental Justice Resource Center, 2000.
51. Robert E. Lang, Office Sprawl: The Evolving Geography of Business. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2000.
52. Richard Jackson and Chris Kochtitzky. Creating a Healthy Environment: The Impact of the Built Environment on Public Health. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control, 2001.
53. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC:, 1996.
54. D.L. Barlett, D.L. and J.B. Steele (1998). "Paying a Price for Polluters," Time (November 23): 72-80.
55. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Environmental Diseases from A to Z. NIH Publication No. 96-4145. http://www.nieehs.nih.gov
56. See Sweatshop Watch: Frequently Asked Questions. http://www.sweatshopwatch.org/swatch/questions.html
57. "Sweatshops and Women of Color." http://www.incite-national.org/involve/sweatshops.html.
58. Robert D. Bullard and Beverly H. Wright. "Environmental Justice for All: Community Perspectives on Health and Research Needs." Toxicology and Industrial Health, Vol. 9, No. 5, 1993: 821-841.
59. Leslie Roberts, World Resources 1998-1999. London: Oxford University Press, 1998.
61. Robert Gough. "Restoring a Balance: Wind Power on the Great Plains." Native Americas, Summer, 2001: 18-25.
62. Robert D. Bullard and Glenn S. Johnson. "Environmental Justice: Grassroots Activism and Its Impact on Public Policy Decision Making. Journal of Social Issues, Vol.56, No.3, 2000: 555-578.
63. Robert D. Bullard. "Climate Justice and People of Color." http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/climatechgpoc.html
64. Extreme Weather, Extreme Costs, in "The Heat Is On". URL: < www.heatisonline.org >.
66. See Nsedu Obot. "Policy Directives Toward the Protection of Children's Health in School Environments." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
67. Action #9. "Precautionary Principle Basis for Policies" of the Ten Actions for Climate Justice Policy.
68. See Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres. "Growing Smarter: Building Equity into a Fair Growth Agenda." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
69. See Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres. "Transportation Justice for All: Addressing Equity in the 21st Century." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
70. See Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres. "Growing Smarter: Building Equity into a Fair Growth Agenda." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
71. Joanna Underwood, "Weaning Oil Dependence Helps World Security."
72. See the NRDC report "No Breathing in the Aisles," for a comprehensive list of funding available to school districts to purchase clean fuel buses (Solomon et al); Solomon, Gina M., Todd R. Campbell, Gail Ruderman Feuer, Julie Masters, Artineh Samkian, and Kavita Ann Paul, "No Breathing in the Aisles: Diesel Exhaust Inside School Buses," Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., and Coalition for Clean Air, January 2001. see www.coalitionforcleanair.org.
73. See Swati R. Prakash. "Breathe At Your Own Risk: Diesels, Environmental Health & Justice." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
74. See Nsedu Obot Witherspoon. "Policy Directives Toward The Protection of Children's Health in School Environments." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
76. See Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres. "Growing Smarter: Building Equity into a Fair Growth Agenda." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
77. See David A. Padgett. "Community-University Initiatives for the Establishment of Urban Environmental Education Centers to Assist Stakeholder Communities." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
78. See Juliet Ellis, Charles L. Mason, Jr., Bhavna Shamasunder, Catalina Garzon. Brownfields Neighborhoods Revitalization." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
79. See Michael J. Lythcott. "Neighborhood Relocation: Community Issues, Existing Options and New Ideas." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
80. See Devon G. Pena. "Environmental Justice and Sustainable Agriculture: Linking Ecological and Social Sides of Sustainability." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.
81. See Running Grass and Julian Agyeman. "Reorienting Environmental Education for Environmental Justice." Draft Policy Paper Submitted to the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University for the Second People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 23-27, 2002.